Ambroxol – Dosage, Function, Side Effects, Warning


What drug is Ambroxol? Ambroxol is a drug that functions to thin sputum. Ambroxol is commonly used to treat respiratory problems associated with excess mucus in the respiratory area.

Name : Ambroxol
Therapeutic Class : Expectorant products (phlegm diluents) and Cough
Trade Names : Ambril, Brommer 30, Bronchopront, Broncozol, Broxal, Epexol, Extropect, Interpec, Lapimuc, Limoxin, Molapect, Mucera, Â Mucopect, Mucos, Mucoxol, Mukinol, Nufanibrox, Roverton, Silopect, Sohopect, Sohopect Forte, Transbroncho, Transmuco.

Ambroxol composition

  • Ambroxol Tablet: Each Ambroxol tablet contains 30 mg of ambroxol hydrochloride.
  • Ambroxol Elict: Each 5 ml (1 measuring spoon) contains ambroxol hydrochloride 30 mg.
  • Ambroxol Syrup: Each 5 ml (1 measuring spoon) contains 15 mg ambroxol hydrochloride.
  • Ambroxol Drops: Each 1 ml contains 15 mg of ambroxol hydrochloride.

Ambroxol function

Each drug certainly has different functions, including ambroxol. More specifically, the function of the drug ambroxol is to cure or relieve this disease:

  • Bronchitis

As we know, bronchitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes. A person suffering from bronchitis will often cough with mucus which can even change color.

  • Bronchiectasia

The next disease that can be treated with the drug ambroxol is bronchiectasis. This disease may be somewhat foreign to some people. Keep in mind that bronchiectasis makes the bronchial tubes thick and dilate, so that the lungs will have difficulty clearing mucus.

  • Asmatic bronchitis

In addition, diseases that can be treated with the drug Ambroxol are asthmatic bronchitis which is an inflammation of the respiratory tract. As the name implies, asthmatic bronchitis occurs when bronchitis and asthma occur simultaneously. Of course the dose of ambroxol is also important.

  • Emphysema

Still associated with chronic bronchitis, this disease occurs due to a chronic condition of the lungs which is blocked, resulting in widening.

  • Tracheobroncitis

Finally, tracheobroncitis is an inflammatory condition in the throat that is caused by viruses, bacterial infections, or even cigarette smoke.

Ambroxol dose

After knowing what diseases can be cured by ambroxol, of course we also have to know the right dose of ambroxol.

Ambroxol is a mucolytic agent and is prescribed for a variety of respiratory diseases, such as emphysema bronchitis pneumoconiosis, chronic pulmonary inflammatory conditions, tracheobronchitis (respiratory tract), bronchiectasis, bronchitis with asthma bronchospasm.

Adult dose of Ambroxol

First we discuss first about the dose of ambroxol for adults.

The recommended dose to be taken is 30-120 mg / day or divided into 2-3 doses. Furthermore, the administration of ambroxol in adults needs to be adjusted to the severity of the disease and the response of the body.

Dose of Ambroxol Children

Ambroxol drugs can also be given to children. The following dose of ambroxol children according to age:

  • Children aged 5â € “12 years: Â · 3 times a day 1/2 tablet.
  • Children aged 2â € “5 years: 3 times a day 7.5 mg.
  • Children under 2 years: 2 times a day 7.5 mg.

Surely the dose of ambroxol can be adjusted according to the severity of the disease. In addition, the dose of child ambroxol can be reduced to 2 times a day for treatment for a long time.


  • Hypersensitivity ( allergic to this drug)

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Ambroxol category for pregnant women: Category C.

Animal reproduction studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits can occur in drug use in pregnant women even though they have potential risks.

Types of drug categories for pregnancy:

  • Category A : Generally acceptable, has been through research in pregnant women, and shows no evidence of fetal damage.
  • Category B : May be accepted by pregnant women, has been through research in experimental animals but there is no direct research evidence in humans.
  • Category C : Use carefully. Research in experimental animals shows risk and there is no direct research in humans.
  • Category D : Used if there are no other drugs that can be used, and in life-threatening conditions.
  • Category X : Don’t use it in pregnancy.
  • NA Category : No information.

How to Use Ambroxol Medication Is:

The use of Ambroxol tablets for consumption by mouth, with food.

Warnings and Precautions

Attention is needed for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Side effects

Side effects of the drug Ambroxol are:

  • Mild effects of gastrointestinal , runny nose and allergic reactions that cause a reddish rash, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting , constipation, loss of appetite, trembling, or fatigue may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor immediately
  • Remember that the doctor has prescribed this medication because he has judged that the benefits to you outweigh the risks of side effects. Many people using this drug do not have serious side effects.

Other Precautions

Avoid overdosing.

Storage Rules:

Store it at room temperature, keep it away from children and pets. Do not flush the medicine into the toilet or do not pour it into the canal unless instructed to do so. Dispose of this product when it expires or is no longer needed. Consult the pharmacist or the local drug waste disposal party.

Treatment, Causes, and Symptoms of Cataracts


Is that cataract? Cataracts are changes in the lens of the eye which should be clear and translucent, becoming cloudy so that the view is blurred and the patient cannot see clearly.

Cataracts occur slowly so that vision is disturbed in varying degrees according to the degree of lens opacification. The speed of cataract disorders in a person is unpredictable, because cataracts in each individual are different, even the development is different from one eye to the other.

The stages of cataract are divided into 3, namely:

  • Immature cataract.
  • Mature cataract.
  • Hipermatur cataracts.

What Causes Cataracts

The process of moaning the lens when experiencing aging has not been clearly known. However, there are several factors that can increase a person’s risk of developing cataracts, including:

  • Congenital or congenital, because his mother was infected with the virus during young pregnancy.
  • As a result of inflammation or eye infection.
  • As a result of diabetes mellitus.
  • Use of steroid drugs.
  • Eye injury.
  • Too long exposure to UV light.

Symptoms of cataracts

Symptoms are blurred vision and like a hindering haze. Easy to glare in a bright place, double vision, the size of the glasses change. If these symptoms appear, it is recommended for a thorough examination by an ophthalmologist.

Keep in mind, that the symptoms of cataracts generally develop slowly. At first the patient will not realize there is a visual impairment, because only a small portion of the lens of the eye has cataracts. But over time, cataracts will worsen and produce the following symptoms:

  • Double visible object.
  • It’s hard to see clearly at night.
  • Eyeglass lens sizes that change frequently.
  • See halos around the light source.

Generally, cataracts do not cause eye pain, but sufferers can feel pain in the eyes, especially if the cataracts that are experienced are severe or have other eye disorders.

When should cataract be operated on?

Until now there are no medicines or foods that can cure cataracts. The only effective way is surgery. As for the prevention, protect the eyes so they are not exposed to UV light.

Surgery needs to be done if the cataract has disrupted daily routine activities and if the glasses are no longer helping. Cataract surgery can be done with local anesthesia or drops and without hospitalization.

In cataract surgery, a cloudy lens will be removed and replaced with an artificial lens. This artificial lens is made of plastic or silicon, and can be used for a lifetime. Whereas in conditions where artificial lenses cannot be installed, patients must wear glasses or contact lenses after cataract surgery to improve vision.

Cataract surgery is performed under local anesthesia so that the eyes become numb, and usually without hospitalization. Discomfort in the eyes is generally felt up to a few days after surgery. In patients with cataracts in both eyes, surgery is performed separately until the patient recovers from the first surgery, which is about 6-12 weeks.

Post Cataract Surgery

  • The success rate of cataract surgery is quite high. More than 90% show improved vision if there are no disturbances or other problems in the eye.
  • Most sufferers no longer need glasses after surgery to look far away, but some need the help of (but thin) glasses both to see far and near.
  • Complications, although very rare, can occur during surgery or after surgery. If you experience discomfort in the eyes, see a doctor immediately.
  • Sometimes the cataract is very cloudy, so that abnormalities in the back of the eye (eye nerves) are not seen during the examination. If this happens, even if the operation is successful, the vision does not necessarily mean significant improvement.

What Is Bipolar Disorder? Know the Symptoms & Treatment


Is that bipolar? Bipolar is a serious mental illness characterized by extreme mood changes from mania to depression. Bipolar disease is a mental illness that can cause damaged social relationships, a disturbed career to suicidal tendencies if left untreated.

Although bipolar disorder is more common in adolescence to adulthood, bipolar disorder is a mental disorder that can also affect children, starting with children aged 6 years. Even so some experts believe this condition is rare and is an excessive diagnosis because the risk of a child to stay bipolar disorder tends to be very minimal.

Bipolar disease is a very risky mental disorder affecting people with high levels of stress. Although the causes of bipolar disorder cannot be specifically determined, experts agree that bipolar disorder is a mental disorder that is more likely to occur in people who have a life with a high level of stress.

In general, a number of studies show that women tend to experience periods of more depression than men. Women are also at a higher risk of experiencing mood swings quickly.

For information, suicide is the most threatening risk of people with bipolar disorder. Data shows that 10-15% of people with mental disorders commit suicide. Â To prevent this from happening, you must be able to read bipolar characteristics.

The types of bipolar disease are:

  • Bipolar I

A person with this type of mental disorder has at least one episode of mania in his life. Mania episodes are periods of abnormal mood, accompanied by abnormal behaviors that interfere with life.

  • Bipolar II

In bipolar II the mood never reaches mania in full, only reaching hypomania only.

  • Fast cyclical

In a fast bipolar cycle, people with this mental disorder will experience four episodes of mania / depression in one year. About 10% – 20% of people with bipolar disorder have a fast cycle.

  • Bipolar mixture

A person who has a mixed type of bipolar mental disorder, his mood will experience episodes of mania and depression simultaneously or in quick succession.

  • Cyclotimia

Cyclotimia is a relatively mild mood disorder. People with cyclotimia disorders have milder symptoms than people who have bipolar disorder.

Causes of Bipolar Disorder are:

Until now some experts have not found with certainty the cause of bipolar. However, a number of researchers believe that this cause of bipolar is related to medical history in the family.

Some of the factors that cause bipolar disorder that are thought to increase a person’s risk of developing mental illness are experiencing high levels of stress, traumatic experience, addiction to alcoholic beverages or illegal drugs.

In addition, other conditions that show symptoms similar to bipolar disorder are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, so physical examination related to the two diseases also needs to be done to ensure the patient’s condition.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disease

After knowing what is bipolar, of course you are curious about the characteristics of bipolar. Bipolar disease is a complex disease. There are many different symptoms and some types of bipolar disorder. The bipolar characteristics or the main symptom of this disorder are dramatic and unexpected mood swings. This type of mental illness can vary from mild to severe.

  • Symptoms of Mania: Symptoms of mania can include excessive happiness, excitement, but irritability, anxiety, increased energy, difficulty in getting sick, excessive thoughts or ideas, high sex drive, and a tendency to make big plans but not affordable.
  • Symptoms of Depression: Depressive symptoms may include sadness, anxiety, irritability, loss of energy, uncontrollable crying, appetite changes causing weight loss or weight gain, increased need for sleep, difficulty in making decisions, and suicidal thoughts .

Diagnosis & Bipolar Characteristics

To understand the mood of sufferers of this mental illness, a doctor or psychiatrist will conduct an interview to make an accurate diagnosis. In diagnosing bipolar disease, a psychiatrist will usually first obtain information directly from the patient or someone who is accompanying the patient to seek treatment.

The doctor or psychiatrist will ask if the patient has experienced a change in mood drastically, what he feels when the period arises, and when the period occurs.

After that, the doctor or psychiatrist will also ask the patient’s family health history, namely whether he has a family member who has the same mental disorder. Doctors may also conduct tests to measure thyroid hormone levels and ensure that the symptoms suffered by the patient are not due to hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Doctors need to pay attention to the bipolar characteristics in detail in the patient.


Knowing the treatment for bipolar disorder is very important to deal with this mental illness. The best treatment for bipolar disorder is a combination of drugs and counseling. Although drug consumption is the main, ongoing psychotherapy is important to help patients better deal with their condition.

In periods of mania, doctors usually give antipsychotic drugs such as benzodiazepines or lithium to control hyperactive behavior, symptoms of insomnia, and emotions. In addition, doctors will also provide drugs to stabilize the mood.

Whereas in periods of depression , lithium can also be given as a mood stabilizer. In addition, other drugs can be given in the form of anticonvulsants, antipsychotic drugs, or a combination of these drugs in order to improve mood without triggering a manic episode.

In essence, the purpose of handling this mental illness is to reduce the frequency of episodes of mania and depression so that patients can live normally and blend with those around them.



Name : Piracetam
Trade Name : Dinagen, Myocalm, Nootropil, Qropi

  • Piracetam is a prototype for Racetam supplements, which is a synthetic supplement group to provide cognitive ability to the brain.
  • Piracetam has a history that is used to treat cognitive disorders. According to a meta-analysis of human studies, piracetam improves general cognitive when given to people in a state of cognitive decline, such as the condition of senility associated with aging. Although piracetam may be a useful supplement to increase longevity, piracetam offers limited benefits for healthy people.
  • Healthy people who consume piracetam only experience little or no cognitive benefits. Although piracetam supplements in healthy people are still lacking research, preliminary evidence shows that piracetam is the most effective for the elderly. Piracetam supplementation has also been found to reduce the possibility of breathing difficulties in children.
  • Piracetam increases the fluidity of cell membranes. This mechanism explains why piracetam is able to improve cognitive, especially in the elderly.
  • Piracetam is as effective as aspirin when used to prevent blood clots, which makes it an additional intervention useful after cardiovascular trauma such as stroke


  • Piracetam dissolves in water, and does not need to be taken along with food
  • Many studies note high variability (inter-individual response differences)
  • This drug (anecdote) is reported to be a non-stimulating drug (not stimulating the brain) and non-sedative (not a sedative)

Cognitive decline , has been investigated in a double-blind repeat study , the consistency of the study is very high. There seems to be an important reduction in the level of cognitive decline (or rehabiliation of age cognition) associated with high doses of Piracetam over time and in a general way. Piracetam is sometimes used as a comparison for cognitive decline.

Breathing difficulties , with strong effects, have been studied in a single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies, and have very high consistency of results. Very effective in reducing the difficulty of breathing in infants when used at appropriate doses, almost completely reduces breathing problems without side effects.

Aggressiveness , with little effect, but studies have been investigated in a single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies, and have very high consistency. In people with cognitive decline, Piracetam supplementation can reduce aggressiveness and agitation.

Memory, with its small effects, has been studied in a single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies, and has very high consistency . Increased memory with consumption of piracetam; proof of smoking is very limited to healthy individuals.

Stroke recovery , has been studied in a single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies, and has very high consistency of results . Not effective in one study where stroke recovery rates were assessed

Cognition has been studied only in uncontrolled or observational studies. There is no significant influence on cognition and nerves in healthy people

The standard dose for children is between 40-100mg per kilogram of body weight. This dose is intended for the treatment of respiratory disorders, although it has also been used for children with dyslexia. The lower dose limit range (40-50 mg / kg) is most commonly used.

The standard dose for adults is between 1,200-4,800mg a day. The biggest effective dose is 1,600mg, taken three times a day for a total daily dose of 4,800mg.

Side effects
Rare and short-lasting piracetam side effects include anxiety, insomnia , drowsiness and agitation. It may be safe to consume up to 18 months in humans at a daily dose of 3.2 grams with a one-year study in outpatient Alzheimer’s patients using 8 grams of daily doses and not reporting any side effects. Piracetam also appears to have clinical use (and lack of side effects) when used in children and adolescents who experience respiratory problems with an oral dose of 50-100mg / kg body weight in children aged 5-60 months.

Piracetam seems to be quite non-toxic at commonly used doses, and some studies exceed the recommended dose (ie a dose of 4.8 grams a day) found no toxicity associated with piracetam

Panu – Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis


Panu is a fungal infection of the skin that causes small white patches on the skin. Panu appears on the skin with a well-rounded round pattern, called tinea versicolor and is caused by a type of yeast (fungus) that naturally lives on your skin. When yeast grows out of control, skin diseases emerge that appear as vaginal rashes.

Causes of Panu

Infection can occur for one of the following reasons:

  • Oily skin
  • Living in a hot climate
  • Sweating a lot
  • Weak immune system

Because yeast grows naturally on your skin, tinea versicolor is not contagious. This condition can affect people of every race / color, and tends to affect teenagers and young adults.

Panu’s symptoms

The white color due to acid from growing yeast causes the skin area to be a different color from the skin around them. This white and white pattern can only be one or broken. Certain signs and symptoms of infection include:

  • Patterns are round and white, pink, red, or brown and can be lighter or darker than the skin around them.
  • A place that is not blackened from all other parts of the skin.
  • Places that may occur anywhere on your body, but are most often seen on the neck, chest, back and arms.

Spots may disappear during cold weather and worse during warm and humid weather. Fungus spots can be dry and scaly and may itch or hurt, although this is not common.

Panu diagnosis

Doctors can diagnose tinea versicolor through seeing a pattern of rashes on their skin. Sometimes, the doctor may use ultraviolet light, which will cause the affected area to show UV rays with a yellow-green fluorescent color. However, if it is not for tinea versicolor, then this UV light examination will not emit yellow-green color in areas suspected of tinea versicolor.

Your doctor may also take skin samples by scraping some skin and scales from the affected area to examine under a microscope. With children, doctors may remove skin cells by first sticking like tape to the skin and then gently pulling it. Samples that tap into the insulation can then be directly attached to the slide for viewing under a microscope.

Treatment can be done with the use of creams, lotions, or shampoos that are applied to the skin. This can also include drugs given as pills. This type of treatment will depend on the size, location, and thickness of the infected area.

Treating Panu

Treatment options include:

  • Topical anti-fungal. This product is applied directly to your skin and may be in the form of lotion, shampoo, cream, foam, or soap. They keep the growth of yeast under control. Topical anti-fungal products containing ingredients such as zinc, pyrithione , seleniumsulfide , miconazole , clotrimazole , and terbinafine are available. But sometimes prescription medications can be needed.
  • Anti-fungal pills. This can be used to treat more serious cases or recurrent phlegm. Or in some cases they can be used because they can provide simple and faster resolution of infection. These medicines are given by a doctor’s prescription and can have side effects. So it’s important to be monitored by your doctor when using anti-fungal pills.

Treatment usually eliminates fungal infections. However, skin discoloration can take up to several months.

Prevent Panu

Fungus recurrence is very frequent because the yeast that causes infection is a normal fungus that lives on the skin. Cleansing drugs can be used once or twice a month to help prevent phlegm from coming back. You may need to use this cleanser if the infection continues to return, especially if you live in a warm and humid area.

Here are some tips to help you manage tinea versicolor:

  • Avoid using oily skin products
  • Reduce exposure to sunlight. Exposure to sunlight can trigger or worsen skin conditions, and make the rash more visible
  • If you need to leave the house and be exposed to the sun, consider using anti-fungal shampoo regularly for several days before exposure to sunlight.
  • Use sunscreen every day. Use a non-greasy sunscreen with a minimum sun protection factor (SPF) 30
  • Don’t wear tight clothes
  • Wear loose, cool cloth like cotton to reduce sweat.